Now that the summer is over and the tech industry is back to work, why not do some good reading? Here is a good reading list to bookmark.
Get up to speed of Generic Programming, or Programming In General
My first recommendation is the collected papers of Alexander Stepanov, which you can get from his website entitled… Collected Papers of Alexander Stepanov. For those who don’t know, Stepanov is the key person behind the C++ Standard Template Library, which he started to develop around 1993. He had earlier been working for Bell Labs close to Andrew Koenig and tried to convince Bjarne Stroustrup to introduce something like Ada Generics in C++. His papers are a treasure of thought on generic programming, logic, robotics and anything else that made you turn to the Computer Science page in your university’s catalog. Best of all he also provides slides for his book in progress, written with Paul McJones, called Programming Elements. This is a great book for refreshing your knowledge of abstract and concrete concepts in quick and easy powerpoint format. Just take a look at the table of contents and I dare you not to click on at least one of the Chapter links.
Concurrent Programming and Software Transaction Memory
A lot of work has been done over the last year regarding Software Transactional Memory (STM). STM is a possible answer to a problem – not the problem itself. They are often confused. The problem is that since Intel and AMD have introduced more cores on to single chip we have to deal with the big problem that comes along with that: managing the threads of multiple cores trying to do the same work on behalf of the system it’s working for. It also begins to address bigger problems of any work you may want to farm off to “locales” that may need to cross boundaries and work on the same data within a transaction (for more information on some of this, see my post from the Google Scalability Conference regarding Cray’s work to replace MPI with a new concurrent language Chapel and the GIGA+ filesystem below)
I think Simon Peyton Jones from Microsoft Research in Cambridge illustrates it best in his paper Composable Memory Transactions(PPOPP’05) :
The dominant programming technique is based on locks, an approach that is simple and direct, but that simply does not scale with program size and complexity. To ensure correctness, programmers must identify which operations con?ict; to ensure liveness, they must avoid introducing deadlock; to ensure good performance, they must balance the granularity at which locking is performed against the costs of ?ne-grain locking. Perhaps the most fundamental objection, though, is that lock-based programs do not compose: correct fragments may fail when combined. For example, consider a hash table with thread-safe insert and delete operations. Now suppose that we want to delete one item A from table t1, and insert it into table t2; but the intermediate state (in which neither table contains the item) must not be visible to other threads. Unless the implementor of the hash table anticipates this need, there is simply no way to satisfy this requirement. Even if she does, all she can do is expose methods such as LockTable and UnlockTable � but as well as breaking the hash-table abstraction, they invite lock-induced deadlock, depending on the order in which the client takes the locks, or race conditions if the client forgets. Yet more complexity is required if the client wants to await the presence of A in t1, but this blocking behaviour must not lock the table (else A cannot be inserted). In short, operations that are individually correct (insert, delete) cannot be composed in to larger correct operations.
The most that has come out of this is that we know it’s a problem and we’d love to use the keyword “atomic” to wrap our transactional code in our languages. Beyond that, not much progress has been made. Luckily, some people are still trying to work it out. The best starting point here are the papers from the before mentioned researcher Simon Peyton Jones. Hiscollection of papers on STM offers a good starting point of the problem and what some possible solutions are. As one of its inventors, his papers uses Haskell, and his work has led to Concurrent Haskell. Haskell lends itself to STM, but it will be quite a bit more of a challenge to get the same functionality in Java and C#. For the brave, there is already an API for C# Software Transactional Memory from Microsoft Research you may want to explore.
Storing The Cloud: How Do We Scale?
Solid State (read: Flash) drives aren’t the only thing showing the age of our old file system technologies. As we expose software as services and begin taking on large numbers of tenants for our software, cloud computing needs clusters with thousands of nodes that, with the multi-core technology mentioned above, will impose a challenge for storage systems. We will need the ability to scale to handle data generated by applications executing in parallel in tens of thousands of threads. There have been some solutions posed, such as IBM General Parallel File System (GPFS) and Microsoft Research’s Boxwood technology.
I was lucky enough to watch a presentation on GIGA+, another solution that is being researched by Swapnil V. Patil at Carnegie Mellon University. One of its ideas is leaving the header-table behind, using a bitmap instead. I got to sit down with him afterward and talk about the challenges we face in this space. His primary concern about GPFS and Boxwood is the use of hashing and B-trees, which causes the possibility of bottlenecks and synchronization issues. By using a bitmap, and keeping it small so that it can be shared across nodes easily, GIGA+ eliminates a need for “metanodes” or other controllers on the HPC storage architecture.
His paper, GIGA+ : Scalable Directories for Shared File Systems, is a great read for those interested both in the problem of high-performance computing and storage.